Teaching Fluency

Fluent readers are able to focus on comprehension without directing large concentrations of cognitive processing resources to decoding words.

Before students have the necessary skills to read connected text, fluency instruction should include the building blocks of reading, including letters or sounds and reading regular and sight words automatically. Once students can read connected text, guided instruction in the form of oral reading using choral, echo, and repeated reading with feedback are effective practices for improving fluency and reading achievement (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Homan, Klesius, & Hite, 1993; NICHHD, 2000).

Developing fluency in reading requires practice, and repeated readings can improve reading and also lead to improvement in decoding, reading rate, and comprehension (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000; NICHHD, 2000).

What are Decodable books?

Decodable books and text contain words made of letter-sounds, and spelling and morphological patterns (e.g. prefixes & suffixes) that a student has been explicitly taught. In order to make the text more readable, a small number of high-frequency words that have more difficult or unexpected spellings, such as ‘the’, ‘my’, ‘was’ are also used. As a student learns new parts of the alphabetic code the vocabulary used in the text expands to include the newly learned ‘graphemes’ and ‘morphemes.’

Source: IDA Ontario

Decodable Books & Activities by Flyleaf Publishing

Decodable books are organized into two categories for students and teachers. Teachers have access to books with accompanying activities and instructional guides! Free for teachers and their students through the 2020-2021 academic school year.

A New Model for Teaching High-Frequency Words

Integrating high-frequency words into phonics lessons allows students to make sense of spelling patterns for these words. To do this, high-frequency words need to be categorized according to whether they are spelled entirely regularly or not. Restructuring the way high-frequency words are taught makes reading and spelling the words more accessible to all students. The rest of this article describes how to “rethink” teaching of high-frequency words and fit them into phonics lessons.

by: Reading Rockets

Matching Books to Phonics Features

Phonics instruction teaches students the relationships between letters and individual sounds. An important step in teaching phonics is to provide students with practice in applying what they’ve learned to real reading and writing.

Effective early reading instruction uses materials (books, stories, poems) that contain a large number of words that children can decode. Other instruction might provide opportunities to spell words and write stories that also contain the same phonics features.

by: Reading Rockets

Using Decodable Books and Early Leveled Readers Appropriately for Beginning Readers

Presented by Linda Farrell

Look at complementary ways to use these two resources to help all beginning readers develop habits that strong readers use.

Hosted by: Voyager Sopris

Decodable Text Sources

Decodable text is a type of text used in beginning reading instruction. Decodable texts are carefully sequenced to progressively incorporate words that are consistent with the letter–sound relationships that have been taught to the new reader. This list of links, compiled by The Reading League, includes decodable text sources for students in grades K-2, 3-8, teens, and all ages.

By: Reading Rockets

Using Choral Reading in Instruction

Choral reading is reading aloud in unison with a whole class or group of students. Choral reading helps build students’ fluency, self-confidence, and motivation. Because students are reading aloud together, students who may ordinarily feel self-conscious or nervous about reading aloud have built-in support.

How to use choral reading

  1. Choose a book or passage that works well for reading aloud as a group:
    • Patterned or predictable (for beginning readers)
    • Not too long
    • At the independent reading level of most students
  2. Provide each student a copy of the text so they may follow along. (Note: You may wish to use an overhead projector or place students at a computer monitor with the text on the screen)
  3. Read the passage or story aloud and model fluent reading for the students.
  4. Ask the students to use a marker or finger to follow along with the text as they read.
  5. Reread the passage and have all students in the group read the story or passage aloud in unison.

Source: Reading Rockets

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